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Impact on loads and responses
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5 BIG Waves You Wouldn't Believe if not on video

Stock photo. Brand new: lowest price The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging where packaging is applicable. No one believed the survivors. They are among the waves naturally - served by people on the sea surface that represent an inseparable feature of the Ocean. See details. Buy It Now. Add to cart.

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Be the first to write a review About this product. About this product Product Information "It came from nowhere, snapping giant ships in two.

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Rogue waves appear from nowhere, cause danger, and disappear at once. They may occur on the surface of a relatively calm sea and not reach very high amplitudes, but still be fatal for ships and crew due to their unexpectedness and abnormal features. Seamen are known to be unsurpassed authors of exciting and horrifying stories about the sea and sea waves. This could explain why, despite the increasing number of documented cases, that sailors' observations of "walls of - ter" have been considered ctitious for a while.

These stories are now addressed again due to the amount of doubtless evidence of the existence of the phenomenon, but still without suf cient information to - able interested researchers and engineers to completely understand it. The billows appear suddenly, exceeding the surrounding waves by two times their size and more, and obtaining many names: abnormal, exceptional, extreme, giant, huge, s- den, episodic, freak, monster, rogue, vicious, killer, mad- or rabid-dog waves, cape rollers, holes in the sea, walls of water, three sisters, etc.

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From the reviews:This book is sure to appeal to those interested in rogue waves from a variety of disciplines. The authors have provided a thorough overview of observations of rogue waves, ranging from frightening experiences at sea to laboratory experiments.

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Rogue waves — also called freak, abnormal, or giant waves — are very steep and much larger than the surrounding waves. They may occur in low, intermediate and high sea states. The existence of these exceptionally large waves — much higher, steeper, and more dangerous than those expected for a given sea state — has always been a part of maritime folklore. For a long time, such events were believed to be mostly anecdotal, but in recent decades new, more reliable measurements see Figure 1 and advances in wave modelling have confirmed the existence of rogue waves.

These abnormal waves have received considerable attention, both in the media and in the scientific community, and in the shipping and offshore industries through larger research programmes, meetings, workshops, and conferences all dedicated to the rogue wave phenomenon. The mechanisms of rogue waves and their detailed dynamic properties are becoming clearer with recent research and through a growing consistency between numerical models and the experimental data documented by many studies.

Several different mechanisms may be responsible for generating these waves such as linear focusing of energy, wave-current interactions e. Several rogue wave-related accidents involving ships and offshore structures have been reported, and yet, as of today, rogue waves are not explicitly included in classification society rules and offshore standards.

This is understandable, due to a lack of consensus on the precise definition of rogue waves. Without a specific definition, there is also no agreement either on the probability of occurrence of such waves, being still a subject of research. While different definitions of rogue waves are proposed in the literature, a common and simple approach is to define a rogue wave as a wave whose wave height or crest height exceeds some thresholds related to the significant wave height Hs an average of one third of the highest waves in a wave record , such as the criteria proposed by Haver 2 ,.

The significance of severe sea state conditions may grow in some ocean regions in the future owing to global warming, and this may also suggest more extreme waves. The rules and standards of classification societies are dynamic, and are continually updated to account for state-of-the-art knowledge. Formal recognition of the existence of rogue waves has caused understandable concern about the impact such waves may have on ships and offshore structures.

Rogue Waves in the Ocean (Advances in Geophysical and Environmental Mechanics and Mathematics)

DNV GL intends to remain at the forefront of the research-based development of rules and standards for design and operations of marine structures, and has therefore been an active participant in investigations on rogue waves. Our Research unit has initiated and managed research projects funded by the European Commission, and broader joint industry projects funded by the marine industry in which our operating units have been directly involved.

Studies so far have demonstrated that rogue waves may have a significant impact on loads and responses of ships and offshore structures. These waves may affect both global and local loads of ships and offshore structures, and, consequently, their design. High rogue waves are the most dangerous regarding structural integrity, but low and intermediate rogue-prone sea states are also expected to impact on the operation of ships and offshore structures, and may also affect weather-restricted design, as well as design of local loads.

Furthermore, following the lead set by Statoil a simple requirement that accounts for rogue waves, when designing the height of a platform deck, was introduced recently in the revised version of the Norwegian Standard NORSOK The DNV GL position paper on Rogue Waves provides a summary of the state-of-the-art knowledge on rogue waves and their impacts on marine structures in general, and ships in particular.

Knowledge about extreme and rogue waves gathered through our participation in research on this topic has encouraged us to initiate implementation of these waves in our wave-structure interaction codes. Such upgraded tools are needed for assessment of loads and responses in situations with rogue waves. They will allow us to reach research-based decisions regarding possible revisions of our rules and standards. A short technical summary of this development is given below.

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Traditionally, the shipping industry has used linear irregular waves as input to numerical codes for calculations of structural loads and responses, while nonlinear second order irregular waves are applied currently by the offshore industry when assessing loads and responses of offshore structures. Neither linear nor second order wave models are able to realistically describe very steep waves and both models fail to correctly predict abnormal events such as rogue waves.

The introduction of nonlinear waves beyond the second order as input to the wave-structure interaction codes is necessary in this case. Further, the increasing use of Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD in ship and offshore structure analysis requires proper descriptions of very steep waves that can be obtained from nonlinear wave models. Very steep nonlinear waves will have a significant impact on water particle kinematics, for which proper descriptions are very important for design and marine operations.

Book review: Rogue waves in the ocean

Breaking waves, traditionally not accounted for in design, are also receiving growing attention in the marine industry owing to their effect on loads and responses. Combining input from nonlinear wave models with CFD analysis in these respects is essential and will provide support to model tests. In DNV GL, implementation of nonlinear waves in wave structure interaction codes has already been initiated via a cross-functional research and business operations team.

The numerical predictions coincided well with experimental and field data. Recently, DNV GL Research has developed its own HOSM code which allows prediction of wave properties not only on the water surface see Figure 4 but also in the water column, providing essential information for calculations of structural loads and responses. The code accounts also in a simple way for wave breaking.

This enabled the sea-keeping code to be run with more realistic nonlinear waves as input. The interface was validated through a case study of a semi-submersible and the effects of using linear and nonlinear waves as input for predictions of loads and responses were investigated.

As expected, significant differences were identified. It was shown that when using more realistic nonlinear wave input, a smaller CFD domain may be used, due to a reduction of the wave's evolution time, saving precious and expensive computational time.

  • Alle Bücher der Reihe Advances in Geophysical and Environmental Mechanics and Mathematics.
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  • This work needs to continue to be able to evaluate the existing margins in the classification rules and offshore standards which need to be known before firm decisions are reached regarding inclusion of nonlinear and rogue waves in rules and standards. Retaining the current safety level in rules and standards during this process is crucial.

    The animation shows computational fluid dynamics CFD simulation of a very steep breaking wave hitting a semi-submersible. In addition to properly describing rogue waves with nonlinear wave models, a further challenge is whether we can develop warning criteria for the types of sea states in which such waves are more likely to occur.

    Existing warning criteria for rogue waves are not fully developed and are not sufficiently reliable. Such criteria may increase safety at sea and affect the planning and execution of operation of ships and offshore structures. The development of warning criteria remains a high priority topic within the scientific community, and for the ship and offshore industries.